Director & Professors
Dr. Robert Heinsch LL.M.Director & Associate Professor of Public International Law
Dr. Robert Heinsch is an Associate Professor of Public International Law at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies of Leiden University, and is the Director of its Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum on International Humanitarian Law at Leiden University and the founder of the Leiden IHL clinic. From 1 April 2018 to 28 February 2019 he held the DAAD Guest Chair for International Humanitarian Law, International Criminal Law and Applied Legal Theory at the Institute of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV) of Bochum University in Germany. During his time at the IFHV he successfully created the Bochum IHL Clinic.
Furthermore, he served as Rapporteur of the ILA study group on the “The Conduct of Hostilities under International Humanitarian Law – Challenges from 21st Century Warfare” between 2012 and 2017. Furthermore, he is member of the German National IHL Committee, and held the position of Federal Dissemination Officer for International Humanitarian Law of the German Red Cross from 2011 to 2014. Previously, he has worked as a Legal Advisor in the International Humanitarian Law Department of the Red Cross Headquarters in Berlin, and as a Legal Officer in the Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court in The Hague. In addition, he has been a Senior Research Fellow at the Chair for International Law and European Law, Cologne University, and a Visiting Lecturer at Bochum University, respectively.
He has published various articles in the field of international criminal law and international humanitarian law, including a monograph on the jurisprudence of the Yugoslavia and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals and its impact on the development of IHL, and he gives regularly presentations and lectures in these fields. He is associated with the Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV) at Bochum University; Former Managing Editor of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (YIHL); Member of the Editorial Board of the German Journal of Peace and Armed Conflict (JILPAC); Former Senior Editor of the Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL); Member of the German Working Group for International Criminal Law; Former Member of the United Nations Association (UNA); Member of the International Law Association (ILA); and Advisor of the International Criminal Court Case Matrix Network (CMN). He holds a Dr. jur. (Ph.D in Law) Degree from the University of Cologne, an LL.M. Degree from University College London, and the First and Second German Legal State Examination.
Dr. Giulia PinzautiAssistant Professor of Public International Law & Deputy Director IHL Clinic
Dr. Giulia Pinzauti is Assistant Professor at Leiden University (LL.M. Course International Dispute Settlement) and Deputy Director at the IHL Clinic of KGF Leiden.
Prof. Helen DuffyGieskes Professor of IHL and Human Rights
Prof. Helen Duffy has been a staff member of the Grotius Centre since January 2015 when she was appointed as Gieskes Professor of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. She currently teaches a course on ‘Victims of War’ on the LLM programme and another on the ‘International Protection of Human Rights’ course in the Advanced Masters programme. In the academic year 2015/1016 she will teach ‘Humanitarian law, Human Rights and Terrorism’ as part of the LLM. Programme.
Her Leiden position is part-time (.2) and Prof. Helen Duffy also runs ‘Human Rights in Practice,’ an international practice based in the Hague that specializes in strategic litigation before regional and international human rights courts and bodies (www.rightsinpractice.org). Prior to establishing her practice in 2011, she served for many years as the Legal Director of INTERIGHTS, and prior positions included Legal Officer at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Counsel to Human Rights Watch/New York, Legal Director of the Centre for Human Rights Legal Action (Guatemala), Legal Adviser to the UK ‘Arms for Iraq’ Inquiry and Legal Officer in the UK government legal service.
Prof. Helen Duffy is a graduate of the universities of Glasgow (LLB), University College London (LLM), Edinburgh (Dip.LP) and Leiden (PhD). She is Honorary Professor at the University of Glasgow and serves on the advisory boards of several organisations. Her publications on international law and practice are listed below, and include ‘The War on Terror and the Framework of International law’ CUP, 2nd ed. 2015.
Prof. Horst FischerProfessor of IHL
Prof. Horst Fischer is Professor of International Humanitarian Law applicable in armed conflicts at the University of Leiden, Adjunct Professor at Columbia University and Visiting Professor at KU Leuven. Prof. Horst Fischer is director of the GIZ Representation in Brussels since 2007. He is President of the European Interuniversity Center for Human Rights and Democratisation in Venice since 2003. He is Academic Director at Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany (on leave).
His dissertation (Bochum, 1984) focused on the use of nuclear weapons under Article 51 of Additional Protocol I. Since 1990 he has been a member of governmental and non-governmental delegations to international conferences on international humanitarian law and humanitarian actions. He has been a consultant for the UN, the European Union and several national ministries as well as non-governmental organizations on questions of humanitarian law, humanitarian actions and security policy. He edits EIUC Studies in Human Rights and Democratisation (Cambridge), Studien zur Friedensforschung (Münster/Berlin) and is associate editor of Europe’s World (Brussels).
He had been the general editor of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (The Hague) and the Quarterly Journal Humanitäres Völkerrecht (Bochum). Since 1982 he has given courses in Master Programmes at several European universities, to the armed forces and non-governmental organisations, mainly on international law, international humanitarian law, the use of force, peaceful settlement of disputes and arms control, European Union and Human Rights and the practice of EU-Human Rights policies and practice.
Dr. Emma IrvingAssistant Professor of Public International Law
Dr. Emma Irving is Assistant Professor of Public International Law at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies at Leiden University. She defended her PhD titled ‘The Shared Protection of Human Rights at the International Criminal Court’ at the University of Amsterdam under the supervision of Prof. André Nollkaemper and Prof. Gӧran Sluiter. The research was carried out within the framework of the ERC funded project ‘SHARES: Shared Responsibility under International Law’. During her PhD, Emma was a Visiting Scholar at Cornell University (USA).
Emma completed her undergraduate degree in Law at the University of Cambridge with an Erasmus exchange year at the University of Utrecht. After Cambridge Emma attended Leiden University where she graduated with an LL.M. in Public International Law in 2012.
Emma’s current research focuses on the use of digital technologies in human rights fact finding and legal accountability.
Researchers & PhD Candidates
Christine Tremblay, LL.M.PhD Fellow
Ms. Christine Tremblay obtained her law degree (BCL and LL.B diplomas) from McGill University in 1999. She is a member of the Quebec Bar. After working for one year at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, she completed her LL.M. (adv.) in Public International Law with a specialization in International Criminal Law at Leiden University (2001-2002). Since the foundation of the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies in 2003, she occupied the position of General Coordinator, managing and coordinating the activities and the finances of the Centre and coordinating the Marie Curie Project sponsored by the European Commission. She was also the Managing Editor of the Leiden Journal of International Law from 2008-2011. In 2011, Ms. Christine Tremblay started her PhD research.
Working title ‘The Femenist Trap: The Use of Gender Stereotyping in International Criminal Law. A discourse Analysis.’ (Dual PhD candidate at the Leiden University Dual PhD Centre The Hague.)
International Criminal Law (hereafter ICL) has immensely developed since the 1990’s. For a long time, women were ‘invisible’ to ICL and sexual crimes were considered side effects of wars and were not prosecuted. Furthermore, women were absent of the structure of ICL. During its last twenty years of development, feminists and women groups have lobbied intensively (and successfully) to ensure that sexual violence would be prosecuted and procedures would be put in place to protect victims testifying about those crimes. They have also lobbied for more women to participate in the institutions of ICL. In her research, Ms. Christine Tremblay intents to analyse, at a moment when we celebrate the gains for women within ICL, which kind of system has been created. For that purpose, she will engage in a discourse analysis from a gender perspective and analyse if gender stereotypes are present in the ICL system.
Sofia Poulopoulou, LL.M.PhD Fellow & Senior Supervisor
Ms. Sofia Poulopoulou is a PhD fellow at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum on International Humanitarian Law, which is part of the Grotius Center for International Legal Studies.
Sofia joined the Forum in February 2016, where she has been working as a researcher and project coordinator. As a researcher at the Forum, she has been engaged in research relating to international humanitarian law, international criminal law and human rights. In addition, she has been involved in the supervision of the projects of the International Humanitarian Law Clinic of the Forum.
Sofia pursued her Bachelor’s degree in Law at the Democritus University of Thrace in Greece. She obtained her Master’s degree in International Law at Maastricht University and conducted part of her degree at the University of York in Toronto, Canada as part of an exchange programme. Upon completion of her studies, Sofia did an internship in the Legal Advisory Section at the International Criminal Court (Office of the Prosecutor) as well as at the Coalition for the International Criminal Court in The Hague and Brussels office.
Sofia’s PhD research under the supervision of Prof. Nico Schrijver and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Robert Heinsch focuses on mechanisms for compliance with International Humanitarian Law with a particular focus on the human rights compliance system.
Ciara Laverty, adv. LL.MPhD Fellow & Senior Supervisor
Ciara Laverty is a PhD candidate at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University. Her research examines the interests protected by international criminal acts and how they relate to the communicative function of the law. Ciara has been a visiting researcher at the University of California, Berkeley and holds an Advanced LLM in Public International Law from Leiden University, an MSc in International Relations from the University of Edinburgh, and a BA from University College London. Prior to joining the Grotius Centre, Ciara was working as an Associate in the Protection of Civilian Population Unit at the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Ezequiel Heffes, LL.M.PhD fellow
Ezequiel Heffes is a Thematic Legal Adviser at Geneva Call, a humanitarian NGO that engages armed non-State actors on humanitarian norms. He holds an LL.M. in IHL and Human Rights from the Geneva Academy, where he was a recipient of the Swiss Government Excellence Scholarship for Foreign Scholars, and a law degree from the University of Buenos Aires School of Law. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden (Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies) under the supervision of Prof. Carsten Stahn and Assoc. Prof. Robert Heinsch. Prior to joining Geneva Call, Ezequiel worked as a field and protection delegate and as a head of office for the ICRC in Colombia, Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
He participates in different research projects, including as co-investigator of the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council-funded Generating Respect for Humanitarian Norms: The Influence of Religious Leaders on Parties to Armed Conflict. Ezequiel has also published various articles and book chapters on different international law issues, including in the International Review of the Red Cross and the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. He is currently working on a monograph on detention by armed groups with Cambridge University Press, and is the co-editor of International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors. Debates, Law and Practice (T.M.C. Asser/Springer, 2020). Ezequiel is also the co-editor of the Armed Groups and International Law blog.
Sharon Pia Hickey, LL.M.Research & Teaching Associate
Sharon Pia Hickey is a Research and Teaching Associate with the International Humanitarian Law Clinic at Leiden University. Before joining the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum, Sharon worked at the Cornell Law School Center on the Death Penalty Worldwide. As Research and Advocacy Director, Sharon managed the Death Penalty Worldwide Database, contributed to the founding of the Alice Project for Women on Death Row, and oversaw studies on a variety of criminal law and human rights topics. She further spearheaded the organisation of the Makwanyane Institute, an intensive training program for lawyers representing indigent clients facing a death sentence.
Prior to her time at the Cornell Center on the Death Penalty Worldwide, Sharon supervised students as Clinical Teaching Fellow at Cornell’s Gender Justice Clinic. In this role she contributed to a variety of research, advocacy, and litigation projects, such as a petition to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights for U.S. servicemembers subjected to sexual violence.
Sharon graduated top of her class from the National University of Ireland, Maynooth, where she was Executive Editor of the Irish Law Journal. She earned her LL.M. from Columbia Law School, where she graduated as a Stone Scholar and was an editor on the Human Rights Law Review. Sharon is a member of the New York Bar, and was honoured in 2017 with the Emerging Leader Award from the IUSA and the U.S. Embassy Dublin.
Johanna Trittenbach, LL.M.Research & Teaching Associate
Johanna Trittenbach studied political science and international law during her under-graduate studies, and Leiden University’s LL.M. programme in public international law with a specialization on international humanitarian law. Johanna first got involved with the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum through its IHL Clinic, where she participated in the ‘IHL in Action’ project. She subsequently joined the KGF as student assistant and is currently a Research & Teaching Associate at the Forum. She is hereby involved in IHL research, the supervision of the IHL Clinic, as well as the administration of the Forum. Her interests revolve around disarmament and arms control, including the application and development of international humanitarian law with regards to emerging military technologies.
Sofia Larriera Santurio, adv. LL.M.Guest Researcher & Senior Supervisor
Sofia Larriera Santurio is a guest researcher at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum and a former IHL Clinic student. She has been working as junior supervisor, assisting the Clinic’s team in a Strategic Litigation project. Before joining the KGF, Sofia graduated (cum laude) from the advanced LL.M. in public international law at Leiden University, with specialisation in international criminal law, and later interned at the UN International Residual Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals in the Hague.
Prior to coming to the Netherlands, Sofia concluded her bachelor’s in law in Brazil and specialised in criminal law, working for many years in the domestic field. Parallel to the work at law firms, Sofia co-founded a feminist civil society organisation aiming to fight gender inequality and gender-based violence through law and the judiciary. One of the main activities carried out during her time with the group was the pro bono legal assistance to victims of gender-based violence.
Besides the KGF, Sofia also works as a Legal Researcher and Consultant for an NGO based in East Timor, supporting their mission to advance human rights in the country through legal research, advocacy and strategic litigation. Her main interests include international criminal justice, criminology, human rights and gender issues.
Waleed Mahmoud, LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Waleed Mahmoud is a guest researcher and junior supervisor at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum on International Humanitarian Law at Leiden University. Waleed is an Egyptian criminal defense lawyer and the founder of the Legalist Research Institute. He obtained his L.L.B (2013) and L.L.M (2015) from AinShams University in Cairo, Egypt and has recently pursued an LL.M. in Legal Research at Utrecht University (2020), where he specialized in IHL, IHRL and ICL.
Waleed firmly believes that practical research-oriented education is key in the domain of international law. In Egypt, next to his legal practice, he instructed advocacy and research skills in international law at academic legal centers and Egyptian universities such as AinShams University, the American University and Cairo University. He continues to do so now virtually via his platform The Legalist, for which he was awarded the UU Social Impact Award of 2019. Waleed also helps establishing national initiatives aimed at improving legal skills of Egyptian students such as the ACC, a moot court simulation of the ICC; and contributes to international practical education by acting as either a coach, judge or organizer in international moot courts such Oxford Price Media Law, Jessup, Telders, ICCMC.
Ashely Peltier, J.D., LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Ashley Peltier is a guest researcher and junior supervisor at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum’s International Humanitarian Law Clinic. Before joining the clinic, she pursued a law degree, Juris Doctor, in the United States and recently completed an LL.M. in Public International Law at the University of Amsterdam, where she specialized in International Humanitarian Law. She received her Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from the University of Wisconsin Madison in the United States.
Before joining the clinic, she advocated for various groups in United States including refugee and asylum seekers, Indigenous peoples, veterans, and children. During her Master’s at the University of Amsterdam, she worked as a student researcher at the Amsterdam Center for International Law, where she researched matters involving international human rights law, international humanitarian law, and universal jurisdiction.
In the future, Ashley hopes to work in the areas of International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law at the international and domestic level.
Juliette Wangen, adv. LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Juliette Wangen is a guest researcher and junior supervisor at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum’s International Humanitarian Law Clinic. Before joining the Forum, Juliette pursued a double LL.B. in English Law and French Law from King’s College London and Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne. She then graduated from Leiden University’s Advanced LL.M. in Public International Law, with a specialization in International Criminal Law. During her master’s degree, Juliette worked as a student research assistant with the IHL Clinic on two projects.
Juliette previously worked with the Civic Coalition for Palestinian Rights in Jerusalem and a student organization which aims to raise awareness about human rights violations in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Her main interests include the law of occupation, business and human rights, as well as international criminal justice.
Associated & Former Staff
- Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
- Lecturer Public International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University
- Lecturer Public International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University
- Assistant Professor, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University
- Legal Officer, UN Office of Legal Affairs, NYC
- Associate Professor, University Roma Tre, Rome
- PhD Fellow
- Research Officer for the Global Health Programme, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva
- Assistant Professor ICL, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egyp
- Legal Officer, International Criminal Court, The Hague
- Lawyer, The Hague
- Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
- Associate Professor of Public International Law
- Legal Intern, Special Tribunal for Lebanon, The Hague
- Research & Teaching Associate
- Assistant Professor, Netherlands Military Academy, Breda
- Trainee Solicitor, Pinsent Masons LLP, Edinburgh, Scotland
- Lawyer, London
- Legal Intern, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, Cambodia
- Research and Teaching Associate
- Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
- Associate Lawyer, De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Amsterdam
- Legal Intern, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, Cambodia
- Intern, Prakken d'Oliveira Human Rights Lawyers, Amsterdam
- Lecturer, Leiden University
- Judge Associate at the Surpreme Court of Victoria, Australia
- Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
- Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
- Advisor at KIT, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam
- Lawyer, Agir Contre la Prostitution des Enfants, Paris, France
- Associate Legal Officer, International Criminal Court, The Hague
- Legal Intern, International Criminal Court, The Hague
- Associate Legal Officer, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, The Hague
- Aspiring Legal Academic, Germany
- Legal Officer, Ministry of Migration, Justice and Consumer Protection, Erfurt, Germany
- Academy Fellow at The Clingendael Institute
- Legal Intern, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, The Hague
- General Manager at GIANT Management, Melbourne, Australia
- Associate Legal Officer, International Criminal Court, The Hague
- Project Consultant, Amnesty International, The Hague
- Lawyer, Amsterdam area
- PhD Candidate, Leiden University
- Associate Lawyer, Allen & Overy, Amsterdam
- Barrister at 3 Raymond Buildings, London
- Administrative Director, Coexister, Paris
- Assistant Legal Officer, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The Hague
- Tutor in Law, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam
- Blue Book Trainee, European Commission, Brussels
Ms. Anamika Misra, LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Anamika Misra is a researcher in International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law specialising in counter-terrorism and the use of new technologies in armed conflict. Her research takes decolonial, feminist, and posthuman approaches to questions of agency, power, and responsibility in IHL and IHRL. She completed her LLM from Kent Law School in Canterbury, UK and will be commencing her PhD study on “A Posthuman view of International Humanitarian Law” at Kent Law School in September 2019.
Dr. Helen Beckmann-HamzeiLecturer Public International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University
Dr. Emilie KuijtLecturer Public International Law, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University
Dr. Erik KoppeAssistant Professor, Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, Leiden University
Ms. Catherine Harwood, LL.M.Legal Officer, UN Office of Legal Affairs, NYC
Ms. Catherine Harwood has been a staff member of the Grotius Centre since January 2013 as a PhD Researcher. Under the co-supervision of Professor Carsten Stahn and Professor Larissa van den Herik, her doctoral research examines international commissions of inquiry established by the United Nations to investigate situations involving multiple violations of human rights, international humanitarian law (IHL) and/or international crimes, in particular their roles and functions in the international legal order.
Catherine’s teaching interests include IHL, human rights, international criminal law and transitional justice. She has taught IHL at Leiden University College and coaches the Leiden team for the Frits Kalshoven Competition on International Humanitarian Law.
Catherine graduated cum laude from Leiden University in 2012 with a LL.M. in Advanced Studies in Public International Law, with the assistance of a Rotary Vocational Scholarship and a Leiden University Excellence Scholarship. In 2009, she graduated from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, with an LL.B. (Hons) and a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology, and is admitted as a Barrister and Solicitor of the High Court of New Zealand. Catherine previously worked as a Judges Clerk at the New Zealand Court of Appeal and was a teaching fellow and researcher at Victoria University. She has also interned at the International Criminal Court and the International Bar Association’s Programme on the ICC.
Dr. Giulio BartoliniAssociate Professor, University Roma Tre, Rome
Ms. Yudan Tan, LL.M.PhD Fellow
Ms. Yudan Tan graduated from Southwest University of Political Science and Law (LLB) in 2010. During her master, Yudan studied comparative law in China-EU School of Law at the China University of Political Science and Law (LL.M.). During this master programme, she worked as a teaching assistant on the course Public International Law. She also obtained a master degree in European and International Law from the University of Hamburg. In September 2013, she started working at Leiden University with Prof. William Schabas and Dr. Robert Heinsch. Her PhD research topic is about the Rome Statute as evidence of customary international law.
Dr. Emilia RichardResearch Officer for the Global Health Programme, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva
Dr. Ahmed KhalifaAssistant Professor ICL, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egyp
Dr. Ahmed F. Khalifa is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Law and International Criminal Law at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, and the Deputy Director of its legal Clinic. Since 2014, he serves as the Deputy Secretary General of the International Association of Penal Law. Furthermore, he is the Middle East Regional Coordinator for the University of Oxford Price Media Moot Court Competition.
Dr. Khalifa currently is an expert consultant with several international organizations including the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), the Siracusa International Institute and the ICRC in the MENA Region. Previously, he served as an in-house legal consultant with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) in Torino, Italy.
After finishing an LL.M. on International Human Rights Law from Temple University, USA, Dr. Khalifa obtained a PhD in International Criminal Law entitled “Les techniques d’imputation devant les juridictions pénales internationales’ from Poitiers University, France.
Mr. Rogier Bartels, LL.M.Legal Officer, International Criminal Court, The Hague
Dr. Luigi ProsperiLawyer, The Hague
Mr. Luigi Prosperi got a PhD in “International legal order and human rights” from Sapienza University of Rome in July 2013. He worked as a research assistant at Luiss Guido Carli University between 2012 and 2014. A visiting fellow at European University Institute (in Florence) in 2014, he later joined the Department of Political Sciences of Sapienza University. In October 2015 he moved to the Netherlands, where he worked as a legal intern at the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC and the ICTY. Between November and December 2016, he worked as an Associate Legal Officer at the ICTY. He published extensively in the field of international law, mostly focusing on international criminal law and the international criminal tribunals’ practice. In April 2017, he was appointed as Honorary Fellow in International Law at the Department of Political Sciences of Sapienza University of Rome.
Mr. Daniel Møgster, LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Mr. Daniel Møgster graduated in 2014 with a master of laws from the University of Oslo and then began to work as ministerial adviser to the Norwegian government on anti-corruption issues. Four years later, in 2018, he graduated from Leiden University’s advanced studies programme on European and International Human Rights Law LL.M. (cum laude). During this study, Daniel continued working part-time for the Norwegian government. He also participated as student researcher to the IHL Clinic of the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum on International Humanitarian Law, and published a peer reviewed academic piece on autonomous weapons systems. Currently at the KGF, he pursues his research interests in the intersection between public international law, human rights law and international humanitarian law.
Dr. Joseph PowderlyAssociate Professor of Public International Law
Dr. Joseph Powderly joined the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies in March 2011. He is Associate Professor, and the Academic Coordinator of the LL.M. Advanced in Public International Law. He lectures in international criminal law, international criminal litigation, and public international law at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. His research focuses in particular on the judicial function in an international criminal law context, but also looks more broadly at issues relevant to international criminal justice, international humanitarian law, international human rights law, and cultural heritage law.
Joe received his PhD in international criminal law from the Irish Centre for Human Rights, NUI, Galway, in 2017. His PhD, which was funded by the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences, looked at the international judicial function, and the role of judicial interpretative creativity in the progressive development of international criminal law. In addition, he holds a B.A. (English and Legal Science, NUIG, 2004), an LL.B. (NUIG, 2005), and an LL.M. in International Human Rights Law (NUIG, 2006).
He has published widely in the area of international criminal law, and international human rights law. He is the author of over 80 case-reports for the Oxford Reports on International Criminal Law. He is currently a member of the Editorial Board of the Leiden Journal of International Law and Criminal Law Forum, as well as an editor of the blog, PhD Studies in Human Rights.
As of February 2018, Joe is a senior supervisor with the IHL Clinic.
Ms. Kaetlin Gale, LL.M.Legal Intern, Special Tribunal for Lebanon, The Hague
Ms. Kaetlin Gale obtained a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) from the University of Exeter, and a Master of Laws (LL.M.) in Public International Law from Leiden University. During her time at Leiden, she notably represented the University at the 2017 Frits Kalshoven International Humanitarian Law (IHL) Competition, with her team finishing as finalists. Furthermore, while writing her master’s thesis on Autonomous Weapon Systems and IHL, Kaetlin completed an internship in the Chambers of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.
Kaetlin joined the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum on IHL at Leiden University as a guest researcher and project coordinator in February 2018. Her research primarily focuses on the conduct of hostilities in modern warfare, especially the influence of new weapons technologies on IHL. As a project coordinator, she supervises one of the Forum’s IHL Clinic projects.
Mr. Nicholas Ortiz, LL.M.Research & Teaching Associate
Nicholas E. Ortiz is an Ecuadorian-American Jurist and Legal Advisor in Public International Law. He currently holds the position of Research and Teaching Associate at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum for International Humanitarian Law (KGF), Leiden University. Hepursued his Bachelor of Laws in European Law School at Maastricht University (LL.B.) and obtained his Master of Laws in Public International law from Leiden University (LL.M.).
Nicholas was formerly a Guest Researcher and Project Coordinator at the KGF, and a Reporter for the International Criminal Law Module of Oxford Reports on International Law. He has also served as an Assistant to the Head of Office of the ADC-ICT, a Legal Intern for the Consulate of Ecuador in the Netherlands, and as a Research Assistant for Dr Emma Irving of Leiden University. He also co-founded a social enterprise and ran its legal affairs for a period.
His focus is primarily international criminal law, but also international humanitarian law and diplomatic law. His research area is innovation in international criminal justice, particularly the use of digital evidence in investigating and prosecuting international crimes.
Ms. Janine Ensing, LL.M.
Ms. Janine Ensing was awarded an MA in Human Rights from University College London and an LL.M. in Public International Law from Leiden University. During her LL.M., she participated in the IHL Clinic of the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum. Janine interned with the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. As of October 2017, Janine serves at the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum as a Guest Researcher.
Mr. Jeroen van den Boogaard, LL.M.Assistant Professor, Netherlands Military Academy, Breda
Mr. John Doyle, LL.M.Trainee Solicitor, Pinsent Masons LLP, Edinburgh, Scotland
Mr. André Nwadikwa-Jonathan, LL.M.Lawyer, London
Mr. André Nwadikwa-Jonathan serves as Guest Researcher and Project Coordinator within the Forum. He graduated cum laude from Leiden University with an LL.M. in Public International Law (specialisation International Humanitarian Law), was called to the Bar of England and Wales and holds an LL.B. from Derby Law School. During his studies at Leiden, André represented the University at the Frits Kalshoven International Humanitarian Law Competition, with his team advancing to the final round.
Ms. Rebecca Devaney, LL.M.Legal Intern, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, Cambodia
Ms. Cinny Buys, LL.M.Research and Teaching Associate
Ms. Cinny Buys holds an LL.B. degree from Radboud University and graduated from Leiden University in Public International Law (LL.M.) in February 2018. During her LL.M., she worked as a Student Assistant for the Kalshoven-Gieskes Forum on IHL and participated in the International Humanitarian Law Clinic, first as a student and later as a supervisor. In addition to her studies, Cinny conducted an internship at the International Criminal Court (Appeals Chamber) and at the European Centre for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) in Berlin (International Crimes and Accountability department). As of March 2018, Cinny works as a Research and Teaching Associate in Public International Law at the KGF, where she will be mainly assisting in the setting up of the IHL MOOC.
Ms. Junli Lim, LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Ms. Junli Lim graduated from Monash University in 2017 with a Master of Laws (Juris Doctor), and was admitted to practice in Victoria, Australia, in 2018. She also holds a Bachelor and Master of Arts in Political Science from the National University of Singapore and University of Melbourne. Before entering the legal field, she taught both undergraduate and postgraduate subjects at the University of Melbourne for over 10 years. The political science subjects she taught include International and Comparative Politics, Corruption in Today’s World, and Organised Crime & Human Trafficking. She has also worked in the not-for-profit sector, and just before joining the KGF, she was a Legal Intern in the Trial Section of the Office of the Prosecutor at the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals.
Mr. Louis Léonet, LL.M.
Mr. Louis Léonet conducted a Bachelor in Law at Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium) and graduated from the LL.M. in Public International Law at Leiden University, in January 2018. The IHL Clinic was one of his first experiences in Leiden, for which he and his teammates conducted a research on the applicability of IHL to cyber warfare. In 2016, he pursued a master in International Relations at Leiden University to broaden his views. He joined the Forum from February to July 2017 as a guest researcher and project supervisor and has returned as of March 2018 as student assistant. In the meantime, he pursued research on the implications of cyber operations at the legal and policy levels, notably contributing to the work of the Hague Program for Cyber Norms, and hopes to pursue a PhD on these issues.
Ms. Thyla Fontein, LL.M.Associate Lawyer, De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Amsterdam
Mr. Øyvind EgeLegal Intern, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, Cambodia
Mr. Øyvind Ege studied Law and Politics at Amsterdam University College (2014) before completing his military service in the Norwegian Armed Forces. He began the LL.M. in Public International Law at Leiden University in late 2016, and joined the IHL Clinic for a project in international criminal law. Øyvind has been a Student Fellow at the KGF since March 2017.
Ms. Lotte Chevalier, LL.M.Intern, Prakken d'Oliveira Human Rights Lawyers, Amsterdam
Ms. Lotte Chevalier obtained her bachelor’s degree in Law (LL.B.) at Leiden University, before starting the LL.M. in Public International Law in September 2016. Lotte participated in the IHL Clinic for the first time during the Honours College Law Programme, as a part of her bachelor. During her LL.M., she was part of an IHL Clinic project for the second time. Lotte serves as the KGF’s Student Assistant and is a Project Coordinator for one of the projects of the Forum’s IHL Clinic.
Mr. Arjen Vermeer, LL.M.Lecturer, Leiden University
Mr. Arjen Vermeer is lecturer at the University Leiden and he is Senior Supervisor at the IHL Clinic of KGF Leiden.
Ms. Claerwen O’Hara, LL.M.Judge Associate at the Surpreme Court of Victoria, Australia
Mr. Neil Cockerill, LL.M.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Neil Cockerill works as a guest researcher and junior supervisor of the KGF’s IHL Clinic, focusing on the Clinic’s digitally derived evidence project. Neil also conducts research on the legality of cyber-actions conducted in Jus ad bellum and Jus in bello. Neil holds an LL.M in Public International Law (specialized in International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law) from Leiden University, an LL.B (Honours) from City, University of London, and a BA in Philosophy and Law & Society from Concordia University (Montreal, Canada). Prior to joining the KGF, Neil worked with Global Legal Action Network (GLAN) as a junior researcher. Additionally, Neil also served as a Corporal in the Canadian Armed Forces (reserves) for five years.
Mr. Mahan Charmshir, B.A.Guest Researcher & Junior Supervisor
Mr. Mahan Charmshir works as a guest researcher and junior supervisor of the IHL Clinic, focusing on the ‘IHL in Action’ project. Mahan is also conducting research into water in IHL; protection of water resources in International Humanitarian Law.
Mahan Charmshir is a graduate of the University of Warsaw in (BA) International Relations.. During his BA Mahan worked with the Center for International Relations (CIR) as a political analyst and commentator. He also established “Gandom Foundation”, a NGO which focuses on the promotion of human rights and humanitarian principals through education and the organization of workshops.
Mahan is currently in the final phase of completing his master’s degree from the NOHA network in International Humanitarian Action at the University of Warsaw & the Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, with a specialization in International Humanitarian Law. During his master’s studies Mahan took part in the Bochum IHL Clinic, participating in the ‘IHL in Action’ project and subsequently joined the KGF as guest researcher working on the project.
Mahan received a DAAD scholarship to conduct research about water scarcity and its impact on the conduct of hostilities in Central Asia. His main field of interest is energy security, hydropower studies, peace and armed conflict studies as well as International Humanitarian Law.
Ms. Maryse Hazelzet, LL.M.Advisor at KIT, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam
Ms. Florence Hénaut, LL.M.Lawyer, Agir Contre la Prostitution des Enfants, Paris, France
Ms. Claire Henderson, LL.M.Associate Legal Officer, International Criminal Court, The Hague
Ms. Anja Jovovic, LL.M.Legal Intern, International Criminal Court, The Hague
Ms. Eva Linaki, LL.M.Associate Legal Officer, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, The Hague
Mr. David KöllerAspiring Legal Academic, Germany
Mr. David Köller finished his LL.M. in Public International Law at Leiden University, where he followed the International Humanitarian Law track. Prior to his LL.M. he graduated first of his year from the University of Wroclaw (Poland), where he studied International Law and European Law. During these past four years, David has focused on international and comparative criminal law as well as humanitarian law.
Ms. Anne Lorenzat, LL.M.Legal Officer, Ministry of Migration, Justice and Consumer Protection, Erfurt, Germany
Ms. Pauline Malek, LL.M.Academy Fellow at The Clingendael Institute
Ms. Nuria Perez Cuso, LL.M.Legal Intern, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, The Hague
Ms. Nathalie Simpson, LL.M.General Manager at GIANT Management, Melbourne, Australia
Ms. Delia Spataru, LL.M.Associate Legal Officer, International Criminal Court, The Hague
Ms. Wieteke Theeuwen, LL.M.Project Consultant, Amnesty International, The Hague
Ms. Geirrun Tomasdottir, LL.M.Lawyer, Amsterdam area
Mr. Floris Tan, LL.M.PhD Candidate, Leiden University
Ms. Florentine Vos, LL.M.Associate Lawyer, Allen & Overy, Amsterdam
Ms. Reka Hollos, LL.M.Barrister at 3 Raymond Buildings, London
Ms. Anne Plouy, LL.M.Administrative Director, Coexister, Paris
Ms. Safi van ‘t Land, LL.M.Assistant Legal Officer, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The Hague
Mr. Abdullahi Abdulrahman Abdalla, LL.M.Tutor in Law, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam
Ms. Manuela Rüegger, LL.M.Blue Book Trainee, European Commission, Brussels
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)Partner
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) helps those affected by armed conflict and promotes compliance with international humanitarian law. The ICRC responds quickly and efficiently to help people affected by armed conflict. They also respond to disasters in conflict zones, because the effects of a disaster are compounded if a country is already at war. Emergencies are unpredictable, so their rapid deployment capability is hugely important.
Established in 1863, the ICRC operates worldwide, helping people affected by conflict and armed violence and promoting the laws that protect victims of war. An independent and neutral organization, its mandate stems essentially from the Geneva Conventions of 1949. They are based in Geneva, Switzerland, and employ some 14,500 people in more than 80 countries. The ICRC is funded mainly by voluntary donations from governments and from national Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
The Netherlands Red CrossPartner
The Netherlands Red Cross seeks to prevent and alleviate human suffering and to improve the situation of vulnerable people. The Netherlands Red Cross helps, protects and takes care of people that are victims of war, conflict and disaster, and those who need assistance because of other circumstances. By promoting respect for international humanitarian law it hopes to strengthen the protection of human dignity and to reduce and alleviate the suffering of those affected by armed conflict.
The German Red CrossPartner
The German Red Cross is a member of the global community of the international Red Cross and Red Crescent movements, providing help without discrimination to the victims of conflicts and disasters and others in need, solely based on their level of need. They act in the name of humanity for the lives, health, wellbeing, protection, peaceful interaction and dignity of all people.
The European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR)Partner
The European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) is an independent, non-profit legal and educational organization dedicated to protecting civil and human rights worldwide. It was founded in 2007 by a small group of renowned human rights lawyers, in order to protect and enforce the rights guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as other declarations of human rights and national constitutions, by juridical means. ECCHR engages in innovative strategic litigation, using European, international, and national law to enforce human rights and to hold state and non-state actors accountable for egregious abuses.
The Planethood FoundationPartner
Headquartered in White Plains, New York, the Planethood Foundation was established in 1996. Aiming to replace the law of force with the force of law, the Planethood Foundation’s philanthropy focuses primarily on empowering the International Criminal Court to prosecute and punish suspected war criminals when sovereign national governments will not. The name “Planethood” was taken from a book co-authored by Ben Ferencz, one of the surviving prosecutors of the Nuremberg tribunals. The Planethood Foundation’s philosophy derives from President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s assertion that ‘[t]he world no longer has a choice between force and law. If civilization is to survive, it must choose the rule of law.’
Amnesty International is a global movement of more than 7 million people in over 150 countries and territories who campaign to end abuses of human rights. They take injustice personally, and campaign for a world where human rights are enjoyed by all.
Médecins Sans FrontièresPartner
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an international, independent medical humanitarian organisation. They provide medical assistance to people affected by conflict, epidemics, disasters, or exclusion from healthcare. Their teams are made up of tens of thousands of health professionals, logistic and administrative staff – most of them hired locally. Their actions are guided by medical ethics and the principles of impartiality, independence and neutrality.
The Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC)Partner
The Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC) includes 2,500 civil society organizations in 150 different countries working in partnership to strengthen international cooperation with the ICC; ensure that the Court is fair, effective and independent; make justice both visible and universal; and advance stronger national laws that deliver justice to victims of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
OAM Consult is a specialized provider of advisory services to public and private organizations involved in the fields of development and philanthropy. OAM Consult was established by former staff members of the UN, the World Bank, NGOs and the private sector. They specialize in four areas: organizational development, programming and evaluation, research, and branding social initiatives. They aim to boost efficiency and effectiveness by investing in talent, technology and cross institutional learning through a people-centered and partnership approach. With an emphasis on flexibility, confidentiality and trust, they leverage a unique blend of management consulting, development and product design approaches as a means to create innovative and scalable solutions.
IHL Clinic at Emory Law School, Atlanta, USAAcademic Partner
Prof. Laurie Blank is Clinical Professor of Law and Director of the IHL Clinic at Emory Law School, Atlanta, USA.
The IHL Clinic at Emory Law School works directly with international tribunals, militaries, non-government organizations, and other entities to enhance protections during wartime and ensure accountability for war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity. Students in the IHL Clinic work on the front lines — researching ways to hold perpetrators accountable, working on detainee cases and other issues in the “war on terror,” and partnering with the US military on strategies for enhanced education and training in the law of armed conflict.
IHL and ICL Clinic at IDC, Radzyner Law School, Herzliya, IsraelAcademic Partner
Adv. Yael Vias Gvirsman is Programme Director of the IHL and ICL Clinic at IDC, Radzyner Law School, Herzliya, Israel.
The IHL and ICL Clinic affords students the opportunity to gain practical experience in international criminal and humanitarian law. Students will work on cases heard before international criminal courts, most of which are based in The Hague, and will provide legal aid services to International Red Cross activities in our region. The field of international criminal law focuses on the prosecution of individuals suspected of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide, while adhering to the principles of due process and ensuring the defendants’ rights. The field of international humanitarian law focuses on the laws of war and the laws of belligerent occupation.
As part of the clinic’s practical aspects students, divided into groups and under the guidance of the program director, will work on cases heard in international criminal courts, compose legal reviews, analyze evidence in pending cases, and work with the various elements involved, including the courts, the prosecution, the defense, the victims, and the judges’ chambers. Working with the International Red Cross will include various projects supervised by the legal advisers at the Red Cross and the program director.
IHL Clinic at Roma Tre Law School, ItalyAcademic Partner
Dr. Giulio Bartolini is Associated Professor of International Humanitarian Law and Director of the IHL Legal Clinic at Roma Tre Law School, Rome, Italy.
The “International Humanitarian Law Legal Clinic” (IHL Legal Clinic) has been established in order to permit students involved in the IHL course of the Law Department to cooperate on a pro bono basis on research projects of relevant stakeholders operating in this area and acquire significant skills beneficial for their competences and future activities.
The IHL Legal Clinic is inspired by a ‘learning by doing’ approach permitting students to develop their competences in legal research, drafting, writing and organization of activities on the basis of knowledges acquired in their academic curricula, in particular through the international humanitarian law course, in order to facilitate the transfer of theoretical analysis into a practical perspective. Creativity and autonomy is encouraged as well as the capacity to cooperate in small working teams able to act through largely independent research and writing. As for the 2016-2017 academic year the IHL Legal Clinic will be involved in two research projects in cooperation with leading institutions in this area, ie. the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Italian Red Cross, IHL Commission.
IHL Clinic at IFHV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, GermanyAcademic Partner
Prof. Robert Heinsch founded the Bochum IHL Clinic in 2018, and currently is the director of the law clinic.
The Bochum IHL Clinic of the Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV) enables selected students learn through experience by applying legal theory to real-world situations. It also allows students to acquire and develop skills in legal research, critical thinking, legal analysis, and problem solving. The students conduct research on projects for real life cooperation partners, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the German Red Cross or humanitarian non-governmental organizations. The different projects under the umbrella of the Bochum IHL Clinic may draw from any topic within the variety of legal issues currently challenging the field, including the scope of application of IHL, the legality of certain types of weaponry, as well as the relationship between IHL, human rights law (HRL) and refugee law.
Centre for InnovationAcademic Partner
The Centre for Innovation prepares Leiden University for the digital future by identifying and exploring technological trends in education and research. They explore technology from a people’s perspective by starting initiatives relevant to society, developing learning experiences and innovation tools. The Centre connects faculty, students, our partners, the market and society at large. Actively merging different visions, methods and experiences they tackle challenges and come up with new solutions.